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ВЛАДИМИР ХАВКИН: УЧЁНЫЙ, СПАСШИЙ МИР ОТ ЧУМЫ И ХОЛЕРЫ

Владимир Хавкин – создатель первой вакцины от чумы и холеры.  Он был лично награждён королевой Елизаветой одним из высших орденов Великобритании. Этому человеку рукоплескала Европа, его боготворила Индия. Однако имя учёного долгое время находилось в тени его прославленного учителя, академика Ильи Мечникова. Сейчас история расставляет всё на свои места.

Владимир Аронович Хавкин родился 15 марта 1860 года в Одессе в многодетной учительской семье. Он окончил мужскую гимназию в Бердянске, там и проявилась его тяга к естественным наукам. Поступив в Одесский университет, Владимир жил на 10 рублей в месяц, которые только и мог выделить для него старший брат, да на помощь от университета – 20 копеек в день на обеды. В университете будущий учёный не только работал в лаборатории Ильи Мечникова, но и вёл активную жизнь народовольца. Когда в 1881 году народовольцы убили царя Александра ІІ, в Одессе начались облавы, гонения на евреев, которых обвиняли в заговоре, и Хавкин был исключён из университета. Три года он бедствовал, перебиваясь репетиторством, а в 1884 г. сумел восстановиться в университете, блестяще сдав экзамены за все семестры. Однако, как еврей, Владимир не мог заниматься научной деятельностью.
Илья Мечников уехал работать в Париж, в Пастеровский университет. Через некоторое время он вызвал к себе талантливого ученика, однако лишь на должность библиотекаря. Хавкин был счастлив приехать к своему учителю. Он просыпался чуть свет, чтобы до открытия библиотеки поработать в лаборатории. А вечером, когда библиотека закрывалась, молодой учёный вновь возвращался к любимой работе.
Брат Владимира пытался помочь ему вернуться в Одессу, но тот отказался: «Поздно. Лучше умереть от ностальгии, чем покинуть науку. У Мечникова, у Пастера, если надо, я согласен работать просто лаборантом… Ведь они творят науку!» Так в 29 лет Владимир Хавкин стал сотрудником Пастеровского института в Париже. Область его исследований – защита организма человека от инфекционных заболеваний путём сывороток и вакцин.

Вакцина от холеры создана!

Медицина того времени не знала противоядия от холеры, и даже самые известные учёные не ведали, каким образом эту болезнь можно победить. Но Владимиру Хавкину через три года напряжённого труда, в самый разгар эпидемии в Европе, удалось создать первую вакцину против холеры. Испытания препарата на животных прошли успешно. Чтобы подтвердить безопасность вакцины для человека, 18 июля 1892 года учёный втайне от коллег ввёл самому себе многократно превышенную дозу. Шесть дней у него держалась повышенная температура, он ощущал сильное недомогание. Тогда Владимир ввёл себе вторую вакцину, температура поднялась ещё выше, но через сутки всё нормализовалось. 25 июля учёный уже знал – вакцина работает!
Поступок Хавкина вызвал восхищение Луи Пастера и всех бактериологов Парижского университета. Однако и Франция, и Испания, где бушевала эпидемия, от вакцин «никому не известного учёного» отказались. Именно в это время эпидемия холеры вспыхнула и в России. Хавкин предложил безвозмездно передать туда свою вакцину, чтобы остановить эпидемию. И… получил отказ. За три месяца от холеры в России погибли около трёхсот тысяч человек… Открытие Хавкина оценило правительство Великобритании и разрешило доктору испытать вакцину в одной из своих колоний – в Индии, стране, которая к концу ХІХ века была полностью поражена холерой.
В начале 1893 года Хавкин в качестве государственного бактериолога прибыл в Индию, где за два года успел наладить производство вакцины. Преодолевая труднопроходимые болота, учёный лично вакцинировал более 42 000 человек. В итоге в тех районах, где была проведена вакцинация, заболеваемость холерой и смертность сократились в десятки раз.

Победа над бубонной чумой

В 1896 году в Бомбее вспыхнула эпидемия бубонной чумы, которая оказалась ещё страшнее холеры. Все свои силы учёный, назначенный к тому времени главным бактериологом Индии, положил на то, чтобы создать новую вакцину. И через два года ему это удалось! Испытания, как и в случае с вакциной против холеры, Владимир Хавкин провёл на самом себе.
Вот как описал этот процесс английский писатель и врач Джон Мастерс: «Учёный спокойно обнажил левый бок, врач ввёл под кожу иглу шприца и сделал смертоносное впрыскивание. Затем Хавкин обнажил правый бок, была сделана вторая прививка. Учёный оделся и со спокойным мужеством стал ожидать своей судьбы. Через час у него началось лихорадочное состояние. Через девять часов температура поднялась до 39 градусов. Он сидел и работал, никому не говоря о случившемся. На следующее утро он, с трудом поднявшись с постели, присутствовал на очень важном заседании…»
Сотни тысяч людей были вакцинированы в Бомбее, Калькутте, Карачи. После этих процедур показатели смертности от бубонной чумы в этих регионах снизились в 15 раз.

Признание

С того времени вакцины Хавкина стали массовыми. Они применяются и сегодня в модернизированном виде. Впоследствии созданная Владимиром Хавкиным в Бомбее лаборатория стала крупнейшим в Юго-Восточной Азии исследовательским центром бактериологии и эпидемиологии. А с 1952 года заведение официально называется Институт имени Хавкина.
На одной из лекций Владимира Хавкина присутствовал сам Махатма Ганди, который, встретившись с учёным после лекции, попросил сделать прививку и себе.
Сегодня в Индии Владимира Хавкина называют, как и Ганди, махатма – «отец нации», а также «великим белым исцелителем».
Когда в 1897 году королева Виктория наградила учёного одним из высших орденов Британской империи, в честь Владимира Хавкина в Лондоне был дан приём, на котором присутствовали крупнейшие медицинские светила Британии. В 1915 году бактериолог-подвижник работал в английском военном министерстве, где руководил прививками английских солдат, отправлявшихся на фронты Первой мировой.
Всю свою жизнь, даже став известным учёным, состоятельным человеком, Владимир Хавкин жил очень скромно, на грани аскетизма. Свои средства он направлял благотворительным обществам или передавал в помощь тем, кто в этом нуждался.
Выдающийся бактериолог, иммунолог и эпидемиолог умер на 71 году жизни 26 октября 1930 года в Швейцарии, в Лозанне. Этот день в Индии был объявлен днём национального траура.
За сорок лет после создания вакцин от чумы и холеры во всём мире было привито и спасено от мучительной смерти более тридцати пяти миллионов человек.

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