Наука и техника

Первое в мире здание, напечатанное на 3D-принтере

Говорят, что американскому химику Чаку Халлу, изобретателю стереолитографии, его 3D-принтер приснился, как таблица периодических элементов Дмитрию Менделееву. Сам изобретатель, ставший впоследствии миллионером, не предполагал, что метод стереопечатания даст толчок «аддитивным технологиям», которые будут применяться в медицине, архитектуре, ракетостроении. 3D-печать – это процесс создания трёхмерных объектов любой геометрической формы на основе цифровой модели. Каковы преимущества 3D-печатания перед традиционными методами механического производства? Быстрота и точность. Например, чтобы изготовить протез какого-то органа, сканируется участок человеческого тела и воссоздаётся его точная до микрона копия, причём на всё уходит несколько часов, а процессом управляет один оператор.

В архитектуре применение 3D-печати до последнего времени было ограничено из-за необходимости значительного увеличения размера принтера и применения сверхпрочных, лёгких и экологичных материалов. Ранее единственным наполнителем для такого принтера служил пластик, но это не самый лучший материал для человеческого жилища. И вот в мае этого года в Арабских Эмиратах увидел свет первый в мире офисный центр площадью 250 кв. м., составные части которого были напечатаны на 3D-принтере. Здание находится в центре города, в нём располагается штаб-квартира Дубайского фонда будущего – именно эта организация инициировала проект.

При строительстве комплекса использовался огромный принтер высотой в 6 м, длиной в 37 и шириной в 12 м, пластик заменила смесь из цемента и строительной крошки, прошедшая испытания в Великобритании и Китае. Работала над зданием команда из 19 человек: один следил за работой 3D-принтера, восемь на месте собирали дом из напечатанных элементов, остальные проводили электричество и обеспечивали работоспособность других систем. Создание конструкции заняло 17 дней, ещё два ушло на внутреннее оформление офиса. Применение этой технологии на 70% сократило трудовые затраты, на 80% – время строительства, а обошлось удовольствие в 140 тыс. долларов – на 50% дешевле, чем традиционное строительство подобного комплекса.

По словам премьер-министра ОАЭ, к 2030 году четверть зданий в Арабских Эмиратах будет построена методом стереопечатания. Однако это будут уже не футуристические небоскрёбы, а дугообразные одноэтажные здания с плавно перетекающими друг в друга формами в духе космической архитектуры Захи Хадид.

Развитие стереолитографии сегодня состоит в экспериментах по использованию новых материалов (от металлов до керамики) и в расширении сферы применения (вплоть до производства необходимого оборудования на орбитальных станциях).

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