Выдающиеся личности

Королева второго плана

27 августа Фаине Георгиевне Раневской исполнилось бы 120 лет. В 1992 году английская энциклопедия «Кто есть кто» включила эту женщину в список 10 самых выдающихся актрис XX века.

С именем Раневской связаны десятки ролей в театре и кино, к сожалению, в основном эпизодических. Недаром актрису называли «королевой второго плана». Сатирик Эмиль Кроткий говорил: «Имя её не сходило с афиши, где она неизменно фигурировала в числе «и др.»». Но помимо ролей, Раневская прославилась своими искромётными высказываниями, которые записывали за ней друзья и знакомые, порой она и сама что-то набрасывала на подвернувшихся под руку клочках бумаги – рецептах, квитанциях. Эти «мысли вслух», «записки на клочках» и автобиографическая книга «Смех сквозь слёзы», изданные после её смерти, стали настоящим бестселлерами.

 Родилась Фаина Раневская 27 августа 1896 г. в Таганроге в состоятельной семье. Её отец владел фабрикой, несколькими домами, магазином и даже пароходом. Но о семье актриса всегда вспоминала довольно скупо – может, потому, что была нелюбимым ребёнком (заикающимся, робким и некрасивым), а возможно, потому, что рано ушла из дома, устремившись в театральную Москву.

Театральные подмостки

С 14 лет Фаина начала посещать занятия в частной театральной студии, и вскоре объявила родным, что намерена стать актрисой и больше никем. Родители с таким решением дочери смириться никак не могли. В начале прошлого века профессия актрисы подразумевала плохую репутацию, жизнь, полную лишений и скитаний – не самая достойная стезя для девушки из традиционной еврейской семьи. Поэтому Фаине пришлось сделать очень непростой выбор – семья или сцена. Она выбрала второе. Так и не окончив гимназию, порвав с родными, девушка отправилась в Москву учиться сценическому искусству. Родители Фаины Георгиевны и брат с сестрой в послереволюционные годы эмигрировали из России. Связь с ними была потеряна на многие годы.

Интересно, что в театральную школу Раневскую не приняли. От волнения перед экзаменационной комиссией девушка начала заикаться, и ей не удался ни один монолог. Тяжело пережив неудачу, от своей мечты она, однако, не отказалась. Фаине удалось пристроиться в Подмосковье в Малаховский дачный театр. А потом в её жизни была череда вначале провинциальных, а затем и московских театров. Последние 30 лет актриса служила в Театре им. Моссовета.

Своё мастерство она оттачивала всю жизнь. Знавшие актрису люди отмечали её самокритичность, и это ей принадлежит известное высказывание: «Талант – это неуверенность в себе и мучительное недовольство собой и своими недостатками, чего я никогда не встречала у посредственности».

Наставница

Своим главным своим учителем Раневская считала актрису Павлу Леонтьевну Вульф, всегда подчёркивая, какую огромную роль сыграла эта женщина в её профессиональном и личностном становлении: «Я бы не стала актрисой без её помощи. Она во мне воспитала человека, воспитала актрису. Она научила трудиться, работать, работать, работать. Она истребила во мне всё, что могло помешать тому, чем я стала. Никаких ночных бдений с актёрской братией, никаких сборищ с вином, анекдотами, блудом. Она научила радоваться природе, «клейким листочкам». Она научила слушать. Любить, понимать лучшую музыку. Она водила смотреть в музее то, что создавало для меня смысл бытия. Она внушила страсть к Пушкину, она запрещала читать просто книги, она давала познать лучшее в мировой литературе. Она научила быть человечной».

 

Киножизнь

 В кино Фаина Раневская сыграла не так много ролей, хотя зрителям она запомнилась сразу после своего дебюта – в немой драме Михаила Ромма «Пышка» (1934). Представители старшего поколения хорошо помнят мамашу из фильма «Свадьба» режиссёра И. Анненского, Маргариту Львовну из комедии «Весна» Г. Александрова, мачеху из сказки «Золушка» Н. Кошеверовой. К слову, Е. Шварц писал сценарий «Золушки» специально для Раневской, она могла вставлять в роль свои реплики и импровизировать – может, поэтому мачеха стала одной из её лучших комедийных ролей. Прославили её также роль Ляли, которую постоянно нервирует её Муля в комедии «Подкидыш» (1939), и озвучивание роли Фрёкен Бок в мультфильме «Карлсон вернулся» (1974). Но работать в кино актриса любила не так сильно, как выходить на театральные подмостки, замечая, что «деньги съедены, а позор остался».

 «Спутник славы – одиночество»

Личная жизнь актрисы в привычном для нас смысле не сложилась. Она никогда не была замужем, в молодости раз и навсегда разочаровавшись в мужчинах, не имела детей. Но Раневская умела дружить – легко одалживала деньги, любила делать подарки. Неслучайно она взяла себе в качестве сценического псевдонима фамилию чеховской героини, чувствуя с ней что-то родственное – беспечность, бескорыстие, щедрость. Актриса всегда поддерживала талантливых и гонимых, дружила с Анной Ахматовой. Её реакцией на то, что коллеги отправили поздравительную телеграмму А. Солженицыну, было: «Какие вы смелые! А я испугалась и послала письмо». Фаина Георгиевна привлекала людей не только талантом, но и жизненной силой, мужеством, неиссякаемым чувством юмора.

 В начале 60-х Раневская помогла своей сестре Белле, овдовевшей за границей, вернуться в СССР. Несколько счастливых лет сёстры жили вместе. Но в 1964 г. Белла умерла от рака, и Фаина Георгиевна снова осталась одна. В последние годы её одиночество скрасил беспородный пёс по кличке Мальчик, которого актриса когда-то подобрала на улице.

 Раневская выходила на сцену даже в 86 лет, будучи уже не очень здоровой. Невозможно забыть её последнюю роль – ироничную и грустную Люси Купер в спектакле «Дальше – тишина…» Театра им. Моссовета, где Фаина Георгиевна играла с Ростиславом Пляттом. Двое пожилых, по-прежнему влюблённых друг в друга супругов должны расстаться, потому что дети не могут взять на содержание их обоих. Тема бесчеловечности близких, собственной беспомощности и приближающегося конца жизни благодаря гениальной игре Раневской и Плятта превратилась в гимн любви и человеческого достоинства.

Актриса перестала выходить на сцену за год до своей смерти. Среди её записей в то время появилась и такая: «У меня хватило ума глупо прожить жизнь». А незадолго до кончины Фаина Георгиевна с горьким сарказмом написала: «Когда умру, похороните меня и на памятнике напишите: «Умерла от омерзения». Не стало актрисы 19 июля 1984 года, ей было 87 лет.

 Из высказываний Раневской:

Вы знаете, что такое сниматься в кино? Представьте, что вы моетесь в бане, а туда приводят экскурсию.

Жизнь слишком коротка, чтобы портить её диетами, жадными мужчинами и плохим настроением.

Люди сами себе устраивают проблемы – никто не заставляет их выбирать скучные профессии, жениться не на тех людях или покупать неудобные туфли.

Лучше быть хорошим человеком, «ругающимся матом», чем тихой, воспитанной тварью.

Под самым красивым хвостом павлина скрывается самая обычная куриная жопа. Так что меньше пафоса, господа.

Здоровье – это когда у вас каждый день болит в другом месте.

Успех – единственный непростительный грех по отношению к своему близкому.

Нет полных женщин, есть тесная одежда.

Есть люди, в которых живёт Бог, есть люди, в которых живёт дьявол, а есть люди, в которых живут только глисты.

Стареть скучно, но это единственный способ жить долго.

Семья заменяет все. Поэтому, прежде чем её завести, стоит подумать, что тебе важнее: всё или семья.

Хрен, положенный на мнение окружающих, обеспечивает спокойную и счастливую жизнь.

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