Культура

Какой язык самый древний?

Если отвечать однозначно на этот вопрос, то ответ таков: самый древний язык – это язык жестов, его знали ещё до появления речи и изобретения письменности. Что же касается праязыка, то до сих пор учёные ведут споры на эту тему.

Существует легенда, что ещё в древности фараон Псамметих (ок. 663–610 до н.э.) пытался узнать, есть ли язык старше египетского. Для этого он отдал двух новорождённых детей пастухам и приказал не произносить при них ни слова. Детей поселили в отдельной хижине. После стадии лепета, дети стали произносить слово «бекос». Фараон поручил найти народ, в языке которого есть такое слово. Оказалось, что во фригийском языке это означало «хлеб». Так, якобы, египтяне узнали, что они не самый древний народ.

На самом деле сейчас о древности языка мы можем судить только по сохранившимся памятникам письменности. К сожалению, свидетельства действительно самых первых существовавших языков до нас не дошли. Сейчас наиболее древними условно принято считать индоарийские языки: хинди, урду, бенгальский, маратхи, панджаби, непальский, цыганский (литературная форма этих языков – древнеиндийский и ведический санскрит). Китайский (путунхуа) и тамильский языки также относятся к группе древнейших азиатских языков. Были найдены древние письмена на санскрите и тамильском, которым более 5000 лет.

Самые ранние египетские иероглифы были найдены в гробнице фараона Сет-Перибсена и датируются 3400 г. до н.э. До 7 века н.э. этот язык существовал в форме коптского языка. Современная версия языка известна как египетский арабский, который вытеснил коптский язык после завоевания мусульманами Египта. Тем не менее, коптский язык существует и поныне в виде языка богослужения Коптской Церкви. Письменные памятники шумерского языка, обнаруженные на территории Ирака, относятся к 3200 г. до н.э. Из западных языков – древнейшими считаются иврит, латинский, греческий, древнеирландский, готский и литовский.

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