Выдающиеся личности

Ив Сен-Лоран – бунтарь в мире моды

«Самая лучшая одежда для женщины – это объятия любящего её мужчины. Но для тех, кто лишён такого счастья, есть я», – сказал один из самых гениальных модельеров всех времён и народов Ив Сен-Лоран, которому 1 августа исполнилось бы 80 лет.

 

Начало карьерного пути

Будущий кутюрье родился в семье страхового агента в городе Оран в Алжире, бывшем в ту пору французской колонией. Ещё в детстве он увлёкся живописью Матисса и, поглощённый миром его ярких красок и прямых линий, старался использовать такие же в своих декорациях и костюмах для домашних кукольных спектаклей, которые он ставил для своих сестёр. Позже эти линии и краски появились и в дизайне его коллекций.

Эпоха конца 50-х – начала 60-х была революционной во всех смыслах – это было время «Битлз», студенческих протестов, женской эмансипации. Всё это не могло не вызвать революцию и в мире моды. Мини-юбки, женские брючные костюмы, А-силуэт платьев, стиль «унисекс» – такого взрыва мир моды ещё не переживал.

Франция в то время становится Меккой для молодых талантливых художников и дизайнеров. В Париже регулярно устраиваются показы коллекций «от кутюр», на которых присутствует весь европейский бомонд, собираются артисты,журналисты и продавцы модной одежды.

Именно в Париж, в Школу при Синдикате высокой моды, и приехал в 1953 году 17-летний Ив Сен-Лоран. Он завоевал город практически сразу. Его маленькое чёрное платье для коктейля в этом же году победило на Международном конкурсе, а эскизы понравились самому Кристиану Диору, который обратил внимание на молодого талантливого дизайнера и взял к себе помощником. После внезапной смерти Диора Ив Сен-Лоран стал его преемником: 21-летнему модельеру предложили должность арт-директора Дома моды. Это был большой риск для владельцев модного Дома Диор. Всё, что требовалось от талантливого юноши, – удержать марку на плаву. Но результаты его работы превзошли все ожидания.

К сожалению, блистательно начавшуюся карьеру прервала служба во французской армии. В 1960 году, во время войны в Алжире, Сен-Лоран был призван на военную службу и отправлен в Африку. Впечатлительный юноша, не приспособленный к жизни в казарме, всего за 20 дней получил сильнейший стресс, закончившийся лечением в неврологической клинике. Однако в 50-х годах было модным считаться богатым невротиком, увлекаться идеями экзистенциализма и женской эмансипации.

 

Бренд «Yves Saint Laurent»

В 1961 году Сен-Лоран отделился от Дома Диор и пустился в самостоятельное плавание, открыв бутик повседневной одежды «Rive Gauche», а позже и собственный Дом моды. Его первая коллекция под брендом «Yves Saint Laurent» появилась в январе 1962 года.

В чём же было новаторство идей Сен-Лорана, сделавших его на многие годы эталоном стиля? Он был первым, кто стал использовать в одежде элементы живописи. Так, в двух его коллекциях 1966 года применялись цветные принты. После этого дизайнеры уже никогда не оставляли идею декорирования тканей, перенося на одежду сюжеты и мотивы изобразительного искусства.

Кутюрье по праву можно считать и основоположником «этностиля». Его «африканская» коллекция 1967 года навеяна воспоминаниями о недолгой армейской службе и красками утопающего в солнечном свете Марокко. «Посещение Марракеша стало для меня сильнейшим шоком. Этот город научил меня цвету», – признавался Сен-Лоран. Уникальность этой коллекции была отмечена многими историками моды. Позже дизайнер купил в Марракеше дом, который после его смерти превратился в музей.

Экспериментируя дальше, кутюрье в новой коллекции 1968 года представил стиль «сафари» – трансформацию костюма для африканской охоты в женский брючный костюм. Кожаный жакет на шнуровке в стиле «сафари» из этой коллекции актуален и сейчас, по праву считаясь изобретением Ива Сен-Лорана.

Женский смокинг, прозрачные блузы, сапоги-ботфорты – всему этому мы тоже обязаны королю «от кутюр». Он создал стиль, позволяющий женщине быть современной вне времени, сохранять свою индивидуальность. А ведь всё, что сейчас прочно поселилось в нашем гардеробе, когда-то было пощёчиной даже парижскому вкусу. В далёкие 50-60-е годы даже ношение женщиной брюк воспринималось как моветон – например, в парижские рестораны женщин в брюках не пускали.

Ещё Сен-Лоран ввёл моду на худощавость. Его подруга Бетти Катру, аристократка, носившая брюки, блейзеры и мужские рубашки, вдохновила дизайнера на создание образа женщины-подростка. Так зародился стиль «унисекс». Сам кутюрье тоже придерживался этого стиля. Благодаря облику Сен-Лорана в мужскую моду 60-х вошли сухопарость, утончённые черты лица, очки и чёрные облегающие свитера.

 

Человек – это стиль

Нельзя стать гением, не будучи бунтарём. Ив Сен-Лоран был настолько яркой личностью, что постоянно не вписывался в рамки общепринятого. Свой первый бутик он назвал «Rive Gauche» («Левый Берег») – по названию места сборища парижских анархистов. В бутике продавалась обычная и деловая одежда, но столь же оригинальная и стильная, как и одежда «от кутюр». Демократизация высокой моды стала ещё одним революционным вызовом Сен-Лорана в ряду многих других. Таких, например, как съёмка обнажённым в рекламе мужских духов бренда YSL. Кутюрье первым стал использовать в дефиле темнокожих моделей. Наоми Кэмпбелл признавалась, что находится в неоплатном долгу перед Сен-Лораном, давшим старт её карьере.

Он стал первым французским модельером, который привёз свою коллекцию в СССР. И это в июне 1959-го, когда советские женщины и мечтать не смели о высокой моде! Приезд Сен-Лорана тогда косвенно послужил созданию первого московского Дома Моды на Кузнецком Мосту.

«Св. Лоран», как его называли, был не просто законодателем мод, человеком с безупречным вкусом, чувствовавшим, что будет модным завтра, не просто великим экспериментатором и революционером. Своим искусством он, по сути, создал новое отношение к жизни – лёгкое, эстетское, «французское», будто вышедшее из фильмов Годара и навеянное музыкой Леграна.

Скончался великий кутюрье в 2008 году в Париже, ему был 71 год. Прах, согласно завещанию, был развеян над Марракешем.

Из одного из последних интервью Ив Сен-Лорана:

– Ваш любимый цвет? – Чёрный.

– Качество, которое Вы больше всего цените в людях? – Терпимость.

– Ваш главный недостаток? – Застенчивость.

– Что вы всегда готовы простить? – Предательство…

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