Выдающиеся личности

Гений гармонии

Чтобы раскрыть свой огромный дар, Шопену хватило всего одного инструмента – фортепиано.
Его сонаты, вальсы, полонезы и ноктюрны совершенны в каждой детали и невольно наводят на мысль о том, какой возвышенной и необыкновенной душой обладал тот, кто мог писать такую музыку…
Борис Пастернак, поэт и музыкант, об этюдах Шопена сказал, что «они скорее обучают истории, строению вселенной и ещё чему бы то ни было более далёкому и общему, чем игре на рояле»…

Фредерик Шопен родился 1 марта 1810 года неподалёку от Варшавы, в городке Желязова Воля. Его мать Юстина Кшижановская была полькой, а отец, Николя Шопен, был родом из Франции. Семья жила в имении графа Скарбека, где отец служил домашним учителем. После рождения сына Николя Шопен получил место учителя в Варшавском лицее, и семья переехала в столицу. Маленький Фредерик рос в атмосфере, пронизанной музыкой: его отец играл на скрипке и флейте, мать хорошо пела и немного играла на фортепиано. В детстве мальчика называли трогательно-ласковым именем Шопенек (что по-польски означает «маленький Шопен»). Окружающие отмечали его чрезмерную впечатлительность и ранимость. Он мог легко расплакаться, слушая музыку, вскакивал среди ночи, чтобы подобрать какой-то необычный аккорд. К пяти годам Фредерик уже уверенно исполнял несложные пьесы, разученные под руководством старшей сестры, а в восемь начал сочинять собственные произведения. Уроки фортепианной игры ему давал маститый чешский музыкант Войцех Живный, который впоследствии отказался от занятий, заявив, что больше ничему не может научить Фредерика.
21 февраля 1818 года Шопена пригласили участвовать в концерте, организованном Обществом благотворительности. С этого дня к 8-летнему Фредерику пришла известность: в Варшаве заговорили о нём как о юном вундеркинде, посетители столичных музыкальных салонов хотели вживую услышать его импровизации. Исполнительское и композиторское дарования юного музыканта развивались так стремительно, что к своим 12 годам он не уступал в мастерстве лучшим польским пианистам.
В сентябре 1823-го Шопен стал учащимся Варшавского лицея, где проявились его разносторонние способности. Преподаватели отмечали его ум и наблюдательность, ему легко давались французский и немецкий языки. Юный Фредерик живо интересовался историей Польши, писал стихи, неплохо рисовал и обладал ярко выраженными артистическими способностями. Он продолжал серьёзно заниматься музыкой и частным образом обучался у директора Варшавской консерватории, педагога и исполнителя Иосифа Эльснера. В 1825 году 15-летний Фредерик удостоился чести выступить перед российским императором Александром I.

К 19 годам Шопен оканчивает консерваторию. Музыкальный гений и виртуоз, он выступает теперь не только в Варшаве, но и в других городах Западной Европы, вращается в кругах интеллектуальной молодёжи, где царят демократические и патриотические настроения. Польша, входившая в то время в состав Российской империи, борется за свою независимость, и в ноябре 1830 года это вылилось в антироссийское восстание, жестоко подавленное царём Николаем I. Шопен узнал об этом, находясь в Штутгарте, и это событие стало для него личной трагедией. Всей душой он стремится на родину, но близкие не советуют ему этого делать: преследования могут коснуться и его, ведь среди восставших было немало его друзей. С тоской в душе музыкант отправляется во Францию, на родину предков по линии отца.
Он больше никогда не вернётся в Польшу. Но образ Родины в его судьбе связан с очень глубокими и сильными переживаниями.

Париж 30-х-40-х годов XIX века был культурным центром Европы, и этот город было очень трудно чем-то удивить. Однако первое же концертное выступление 22-летнего Шопена произвело неизгладимое впечатление на искушённых парижан. Как вспоминали современники, его игра была удивительно одухотворённой, и это было так непохоже на исполнение других пианистов. Музыка Шопена, его нечастые выступления вызывают неизменное восхищение публики. Растёт его известность, расширяется круг знакомых. Друзьями Фредерика становятся композиторы Лист и Берлиоз, художник Делакруа, немецкий поэт Гейне. Вот как описывал музыканта в этот период его жизни Ференц Лист: «…он был небольшого роста, хрупкого, тонкого сложения. Манеры его были изысканны, разнообразны; голос немного утомлённый, часто глухой. Его манеры были полны такой порядочности, в них был такой налёт кровного аристократизма, что его невольно встречали и принимали, как князя… В общество Шопен вносил ту ровность расположения духа лиц, которых не беспокоят заботы, которые не знают слова „скука“, не привязаны ни к каким интересам. Шопен был обыкновенно весел; его колкий ум быстро отыскивал смешное даже и в таких проявлениях, которые не всем бросаются в глаза». Много времени Шопен посвящает не только выступлениям и сочинению музыки, но и педагогике – за свою жизнь он дал множество частных уроков, находя в преподавании не только источник дохода, но и большую радость. Ученики боготворили его.
Однако новым друзьям музыкант неизменно предпочитал общество соотечественников. Он мог часами слушать рассказы своих польских друзей о родине, об оставленных там родных и знакомых.

В 1936 году в Чехии Шопен знакомится с юной Марией Водзиньской, дочерью богатого польского вельможи, и делает ей предложение. Однако помолвка через некоторое время была расторгнута: родители девушки посчитали, что состоятельный граф будет лучшей партией для дочери, чем музыкант, пусть и известный. Шопен переживал этот разрыв как большое горе.
Неудавшаяся личная жизнь, невозможность видеться с родными и близкими, трагические события на Родине – не слишком ли много для ранимой и чувствительной души?.. Силы музыканта подтачивал и неизлечимый в ту пору недуг – туберкулёз.
Именно таким – болезненным, тосковавшим от одиночества, но в то же время изысканно красивым и «талантливым до безумия» на одном из вечеров его впервые увидела Жорж Санд. 32-летняя писательница, известная своим скандальным поведением, романами со многими известными людьми, и 26-летний утончённый музыкант, казалось, были слишком разными для того, чтобы быть вместе. Однако они прожили друг с другом почти 10 лет.
Завоевать симпатии Шопена ей удалось не сразу. Он ревностно оберегал своё личное пространство, боялся чувств Санд, пытался им противиться: «Всего себя я посвятил музыке. Если я вернусь в телесную оболочку, в этот мешок с костями, то боюсь, что мой талант просто исчезнет». Но вместе с тем не мог не покориться её жизненной силе. Из её письма Фредерику: «Во мне нет стольких достоинств и благородных качеств, но я люблю того, кто всем этим обладает. Люблю страстно, люблю честно, люблю верно».
Биографы по-разному оценивают влияние Жорж Санд на жизнь Шопена. Ференц Лист в своей книге, которая была издана ещё при жизни Санд, недвусмысленно указал на то, что именно эта женщина стала причиной преждевременной кончины музыканта. А один из учеников Шопена, В. Ленц, даже назвал её «ядовитым растением». Как бы то ни было, за годы жизни с Жорж Санд Шопен создал свои самые лучшие, самые совершенные произведения…

Разрыв отношений с писательницей окончательно подорвал его силы. Фредерик Шопен умер в Париже через полтора года на руках у своей старшей сестры Людовики, измученный болезнью, истощённый физически и морально, лишившийся средств к существованию…
Его похоронили на кладбище Пер-Лашез в Париже. Людовика, выполняя волю брата, привезла его сердце в стеклянной урне в Варшаву. Там, в костёле Святого Креста, оно замуровано в одну из колонн.

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