Наука и техника

Что такое нанотехнологии?

«Нано» – это приставка, обозначающая одну миллиардную долю исходного числа, а нанотехнологии – это манипуляции с материалами на уровне отдельных молекул и атомов, поэтому нанотехнологии позволяют менять свойства материи, а также достигать сверхточности. Молекула к молекуле – и в результате нестандартной сборки простые наночастицы превращаются в уникальный по своим характеристикам материал.
За счёт своего размера наночастицы могут беспрепятственно проникать в клетку организма, что делает их незаменимыми в медицине. Ведь таким образом можно «доставлять» нужные вещества непосредственно к повреждённому участку. Предполагается, что благодаря нанотехнологиям для больных раком вскоре исчезнет необходимость в химиотерапии. Так, учёные Монреальского университета, Политехнического университета Монреаля и Университета Макгилла разработали специальные нанокапсулы, которые способны перемещаться по кровотоку и доставлять лекарство прямо в поражённые раком клетки организма. Это впечатляющий прорыв в медицине, ведь таким образом не подвергаются риску здоровые ткани и лечение происходит максимально целенаправленно.
В сфере строительных технологий всё чаще используются наносенсоры – специальные датчики, которые помогают анализировать состояние любого здания. В энергетике и электронике также планируется повсеместное использование новейших наноматериалов. К примеру, из углеродных нанотрубок удалось создать протяжённые волокна, которые обладают высокой электропроводностью и прочностью, превосходящей сталь.
Машиностроение, медицина, строительство, энергетика – эти и многие другие отрасли активно используют нанотехнологии, что стало возможным благодаря революции в разработке современных материалов.

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